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Neither the Royal African Society, (the RAS) nor its representatives, agents or employees nor any connected company or party to the Royal African Society shall be liable to a user of this site, service and information. Neither shall any of the aforementioned be responsible to any third party for any loss or injury arising out of the information nor any actions taken or not taken in response to any information nor a user's use of this service nor if for any reason connectivity is not possible.

In the event that the internet connection is broken for any reason the Royal African Society will take all necessary steps to re-establish a service, however the Royal African Society cannot be held responsible for any losses or data corruption arising from a lack of service either directly or indirectly to a client or through a client to a third party. Any person or company using this site does so entirely at their own risk and should take all possible precautions to ensure that virus checking software is in place. If the user of the site inadvertently downloads any virus in the course of using the RAS website, the RAS cannot be held responsible for any damage this inflicts.

Any opinions from either employees or contributors are purely opinions of individuals and do not represent any opinion of the RAS as a company nor intend to offer advice of any nature that could be acted on by individuals.

Open access licence for RAS public events content

We allow anyone to access our content electronically without charge. We want to encourage the circulation of our work as widely as possible without affecting the ownership of the copyright, which remains with the copyright holder; in the event that you use any of our content, please ensure that the copyright holder, and where applicable, the producer and the RAS are credited.

You are welcome to link to, download, save or distribute this work electronically. If you are interested in using the work, please ensure that: 


·         The RAS and the speaker(s) are credited;

·         The RAS website (www.royalafricansociety.org) or where appropriate, one of our published sites: (e.g. www.africanarguments.org) is published together with a copy of this policy statement in a prominent position;

·         The work is not resold or used for commercial purposes;

·         A copy of the work or link to its use online is emailed to the RAS.  

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